Water scarcity is a serious problem in many countries. What are the causes of this？And what solutions can be done by individuals and the government?
deplete v. 耗尽
irrigation n. 灌溉
extract v. 萃取
scarcity n. 稀缺
garden sprinklers n. 花园喷头
label v. 标记
drive v. 驱动
tiered adj. 分级的
progressively adv. 逐步地
lawn watering n. 花园浇水
Due to the expanding human population, consumption of water is growing such that fresh water in various regions are becoming depleted. This is due both for direct human consumption as well as agricultural irrigation by groundwater: millions of pumps of all sizes are currently extracting groundwater throughout the world, and irrigation in dry areas is being extracted from groundwater at an unsustainable rate.
On the other hand, climate change could have significant impacts on water scarcity around the world. It has been confirmed with sound scientific evidence that droughts resulted from climate change has become more frequent in different regions globally, which leads to an increase in demand for farm irrigation, garden sprinklers, and perhaps even swimming pools.
National water program can be and has already been launched by various governments to encourage more efficient domestic, industrial, and agricultural water use. For instance, water management scheme in some countries labels domestic water products with their consumption information, influencing purchasing decisions and driving both reductions in demand for water and competition amongst suppliers.
Other strategies include tiered water rates, which charge progressively higher prices as water use increases, or restrictions on outdoor water use such as lawn watering and car washing during drought season. Besides, various household water applications employing the latest technologies, ranging from low-flush toilet to household greywater recycling system, should also be encouraged or subsidized to reduce and recycle water.